Style Guide

References are placed in the body of the text. The citation is placed in parenthesis, with the author's name, year of publication, and page cited: (Stedman 1982:1322). Punctuation is placed outside the parenthesis. Specific page citation is mandatory for a direct quote, or when referring to a paraphrased statement that is found only in a very specific place in a cited text. The page may be omitted if the reference is to the general theme of an entire work. If the citation refers to more than one work, list the works in alphabetical order by the author's name and separate the items by semicolons. For example, (Bolin 1987a, 1987b; Goodell 1985; Nesman 1981).

Works by one, two, or three authors are cited by using the full names, e.g., (Welch, Greathead, and Beutel 1985). But works with four or more authors are cited as e.g., (Acheson et al. 1979). The coauthors' names are given in full in the References Cited list.

References Cited should be alphabetized by author's last name. Every item referred to in the text must appear in the Reference Cited list. Do not include any item in the References Cited if it has not been cited in the text. Multiple items by the same author are listed chronologically. Multiple items by the same author having the same publication date are alphabetized by the first word of their titles and distinguished by (a), (b), etc.

The layout of typical references is as follows:

Burton, Frank
1978 The Politics of Legitimacy. London, United Kingdom: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

De Walt, Kathleen M.
1983a Income and Dietary Adequacy in an Agricultural Community. Social Science and Medicine17(23):1877-1886.
1983b Nutritional Strategies and Agricultural Change in a Mexican Community. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press.

Ellen, Roy F., ed.
1984 Ethnographic Research: A Guide to General Conduct. London, United Kingdom: Academic Press.

Huamoni Coba, Nanto, and Enqueri Nihua
1992 Huaorani Letter to Maxux President. URL:<gopher://> (December 23,1996).

1996 Tras la descertificación, Colombia enfrenta una incertidumbre económica. URL: (September 16,1996).

Nash, June
1976 Ethnology in a Revolutionary Setting. In Ethics and Anthropology: Dilemmas in Fieldwork. Michael A. Rynkiewich and James P. Spradley, eds. Pp. 148-166. New York: Wiley.

Reynolds, Paul D.
1972 On the Protection of Human Subjects and Social Science. International Social Science Journal 24(4):693-719.
1979 Ethnical Dilemmas and Social Science Research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Stuart, James W.
1977 Subsistence Ecology of the Isthmus Nahuat Indians of Southern Veracruz. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside.

Please note the patterns of spacing, indentation, capitalization, and punctuation; note also the order in which items of information within a reference are placed. Use a hard return after the author's name. Use a standard tab before and after the date. Double space between all references.

An institution that serves as an author is written out in full, followed by an acronym. The acronym alone is used in the citation. For example, the full reference is:

California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA)
1986 Statistical Review 1985. Sacramento: State of California.
But the citation would be: (CDFA 1986).

Be sure to indicate inclusive pages and volume numbers for articles in periodicals, and inclusive pages and name of editor for articles in anthologies.

For all other questions regarding style of references-particularly such matters as government documents, unpublished reports, materials in languages other than English, please consult the Chicago Manual of Style 15th edition, 2003.

Direct quotations of five or more typed lines must be indented from both left and right margins. Do not use quotation marks. Give the reference for such a quotation in the sentence immediately preceding, if at all possible. Omissions in a quotation are indicated by ellipses (three spaced dots); the third dot does not substitute for a period.

The final authority on spelling will be Webster's Third New International Dictionary. In a direct quotation, however, the original spelling is followed, even if it is incorrect. An incorrect spelling is indicated by [sic].

Acronyms do not carry periods. Very familiar acronyms may stand without explanation (e.g., UN, USA, USAID, EEC), but unfamiliar titles are written out in full at first mention, followed by a parenthetical acronym that is used thereafter, e.g., Strawberry Processing Advisory Board (SPAB).

Numbers from one to nine are spelled out; all others are expressed as numerals, including such constructions as 5,000 (rather than "five thousand"). A number expressing percentage is written as a numeral followed by the word "percent" (e.g., 5 percent, not "5%" or "five percent"). Monetary expressions are to be written as numerals and symbols (e.g. $8,000, not "eight thousand dollars"). Provide U.S. dollar equivalents for all other currencies, if at all possible. Century designations use numerals, and "century" is not capitalized (e.g., "18th century"). A decade is referred to as "the 1980s" (not "the 1980's or "the eighties"). When inclusive pages are cited, no digits are omitted [e.g., (Burton 1978:164-179)], but when a span of years in a single century is indicated, the first two digits of the second number may be omitted (e.g., "1965-80"). If a number begins a sentence, it must be written out.

Common units of measurement are left in abbreviated form; numbers associated with such abbreviations are left as numerals (e.g., 6 km., not "six kilometers"). Use metric units whenever possible.